The "chubby Buddha" or "laughing Buddha" is a 10th-century Chinese folk hero by the name of Budai. Although in Pure Land Buddhism the Buddha is considered a savior, he is still not considered a god in the common understanding of the term. The original Hebrew texts mention only tree and fruit. Early Latin translations use the word mali, which can be taken to mean both "evil" and "apple".
In early Germanic languages the word "apple" and its cognates usually meant simply "fruit". German and French artists commonly depict the fruit as an apple from the 12th century onwards, and John Milton 's Areopagitica from explicitly mentions the fruit as an apple. Matthew 2 has traditionally been combined with Isaiah Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of the Lord has risen upon you.
Three magi are supposed because three gifts are described, and artistic depictions of the nativity have almost always depicted three magi since the 3rd century. This maximum interval explained Herod's command at Matthew 2: More recent commentators, not tied to the traditional feast days, may suggest a variety of intervals. He was born a Jew, with Roman citizenship inherited from his father, and thus carried both a Hebrew and a Latin name from birth.
Luke indicates the coexistence of the names in Acts Saul, who also is called Paul Instead, it denotes a Roman Catholic belief that Mary was not in a state of original sin from the moment of her own conception. While most theologians state that canonizations meet the requisites,  aside from that, most recent popes have finished their reign without a single invocation of infallibility.
Otherwise, even when speaking in his official capacity, dogma does not hold that he is free from error. While there is such a thing as " jihad bil saif ", or jihad "by the sword",  many modern Islamic scholars usually say that it implies an effort or struggle of a spiritual kind.
It does mention companions, houri , to all people—martyr or not—in heaven, but no number is specified. The source for the 72 virgins is a hadith in Sunan al-Tirmidhi by Imam Tirmidhi. Muslims are not meant to necessarily believe all hadiths, and that applies particularly to those hadiths that are weakly sourced, such as this one. He is forgiven with the first flow of blood he suffers , he is shown his place in Paradise, he is protected from punishment in the grave, secured from the greatest terror, the crown of dignity is placed upon his head—and its gems are better than the world and what is in it—he is married to seventy two wives among Al-Huril-'Ayn of Paradise, and he may intercede for seventy of his close relatives.
It is believed to have evolved from other bat-and-ball games such as cricket and rounders and first took its modern form in New York City. It was introduced for judo in the s to indicate competency at all of the basic techniques of the sport. Promotion beyond black belt varies among different martial arts. In judo and some other Asian martial arts, holders of higher ranks are awarded belts with alternating red and white panels, and the highest ranks with solid red belts. The Football Association 's rules are silent on the subject, and often the decision over what shape flag to use has been up to the individual club's groundskeepers.
List of common misconceptions about language learning Non-standard, slang or colloquial terms used by English speakers are sometimes alleged not to be real words, despite appearing in numerous dictionaries.
All words in English became accepted by being commonly used for a certain period of time; thus there are many informal words currently regarded as "incorrect" in formal speech or writing, but the idea that they are not words is a misconception. The earliest certain recorded use of "fuck" in English comes from c. It is of Proto-Germanic origin, and is related to either Dutch fokken and German ficken or Norwegian fukka.
Only one Spanish king, Peter of Castile , is documented as having a lisp, and the current pronunciation originated two centuries after his death. While "no va" does mean "doesn't go" in Spanish, "nova" is understood as "new" and drivers in Mexico and Venezuela where it was first sold bought it eagerly. There was no need to change the model name,  despite claims to the contrary.
Aside from the pidgin International Sign , each country generally has its own native sign language, and some have more than one although there are also substantial similarities among all sign languages. Later, the word came to mean any sort of non-expert or layman, then someone uneducated or ignorant, and much later to mean stupid or mentally deficient. A common misconception alleged that Caliph Umar ordered the destruction based on the reasoning "If those books are in agreement with the Quran , we have no need of them; and if these are opposed to the Quran, destroy them" or its variation.
This story did not appear in writing until hundreds of years after the alleged incident most famously in the work of Bar Hebraeus in the 13th century and contemporary accounts of the Arab invasion do not include any account of the library's destruction.
Modern consensus suggests the library had likely already been destroyed centuries before this incident. A year-old man in medieval England, for example, could by one estimate expect to live to the age of There is no evidence that iron maidens were invented in the Middle Ages or even used for torture.
Instead they were pieced together in the 18th century from several artifacts found in museums in order to create spectacular objects intended for commercial exhibition. They would as a matter of course fight on foot and could mount and dismount without help.
In fact, soldiers equipped with plate armor were more mobile than those with mail armor chain armor , as mail was heavier and required stiff padding beneath due to its pliable nature. Whether chastity belts , devices designed to prevent women from having sexual intercourse , were invented in medieval times is disputed by modern historians. Most existing chastity belts are now thought to be deliberate fakes or anti-masturbatory devices from the 19th and early 20th centuries.
The latter were made due to the widespread belief that masturbation could lead to insanity , and were mostly bought by parents for their teenage children. Medieval Europeans did not believe Earth was flat ; in fact, from the time of the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle , belief in a spherical Earth remained almost universal among European intellectuals. As a result, Christopher Columbus 's efforts to obtain support for his voyages were hampered not by belief in a flat Earth but by valid worries that the East Indies were farther than he realized.
Columbus never reached any land that now forms part of the mainland United States of America; most of the landings Columbus made on his four voyages , including the initial October 12, landing the anniversary of which forms the basis of Columbus Day , were on Caribbean islands which today are independent countries.
Columbus was also not the first European to visit the Americas: Durum wheat , and thus pasta as it is known today, was introduced by Arabs from Libya, during their conquest of Sicily in the late 7th century, according to the newsletter of the National Macaroni Manufacturers Association ,  thus predating Marco Polo's travels to China by about six centuries.
Early modern Contrary to the popular image of the Pilgrim Fathers , the early settlers of the Plymouth Colony did not wear all black, and their capotains hats were shorter and rounder than the widely depicted tall hat with a buckle on it. Instead, their fashion was based on that of the late Elizabethan era: Both men and women wore the same style of shoes, stockings, capes, coats and hats in a range of colors including reds, yellows, purples, and greens. Baker, the traditional image was formed in the 19th century when buckles were a kind of emblem of quaintness.
The phrase was first published in Rousseau's Confessions when Marie was only nine years old and most scholars believe that Rousseau coined it himself, or that it was said by Maria-Theresa , the wife of Louis XIV. Even Rousseau or Maria-Theresa did not use the exact words but actually Qu'ils mangent de la brioche, "Let them eat brioche " a rich type of bread. Marie Antoinette was an unpopular ruler; therefore, people attribute the phrase "let them eat cake" to her, in keeping with her reputation as being hard-hearted and disconnected from her subjects.
His dentures were made of gold, hippopotamus ivory, lead, animal teeth including horse and donkey teeth ,  and probably human teeth purchased from slaves. After the Second Continental Congress voted to declare independence on July 2, the final language of the document was approved on July 4, and it was printed and distributed on July 4—5.
While he did serve on a commission that tried to design a seal after the Declaration of Independence , his proposal was an image of Moses. His objections to the eagle as a national symbol and preference for the turkey were stated in a letter to his daughter in response to the Society of the Cincinnati 's use of the former; he never expressed that sentiment publicly. In , a petition from a group of German immigrants was put aside on a procedural vote of 42 to 41, that would have had the government publish some laws in German.
This was the basis of the Muhlenberg legend , named after the Speaker of the House at the time, Frederick Muhlenberg , a speaker of German descent who abstained from this vote. Napoleon was taller than his nickname, The Little Corporal, suggests. He was actually slightly taller than the average Frenchman of his time. Mexico's Declaration of Independence from Spain in is celebrated on September O'Leary 's cow kicking over a lantern. A newspaper reporter invented the story to make colorful copy.
I wish to return" and that Hearst responded, "Please remain. You furnish the pictures, and I'll furnish the war" is unsubstantiated. This anecdote was originally included in a book by James Creelman , though there is no evidence that the telegraph exchange ever happened, and substantial evidence that it did not.
Officials there kept no records other than checking ship manifests created at the point of origin, and there was simply no paperwork which would have created such an effect, let alone any law. At the time in New York, anyone could change the spelling of their name simply by using that new spelling. Despite being historically represented with different characteristics in different colours of robes, Santa Claus had already taken his modern form in popular culture and seen extensive use in other companies' advertisements and other mass media at the time Coca-Cola began using his image in the s.
Much of the repair work had been performed before Mussolini and the Fascists came to power in Accounts from the era also suggest that the Italian railways' legendary adherence to timetables was more propaganda than reality. Wells ' The War of the Worlds. Only a very small share of the radio audience was even listening to it, and isolated reports of scattered incidents and increased call volume to emergency services were played up the next day by newspapers, eager to discredit radio as a competitor for advertising.
Both Welles and CBS, which had initially reacted apologetically, later came to realize that the myth benefited them and actively embraced it in later years. This story may have originated from German propaganda efforts following the charge at Krojanty , in which a Polish cavalry brigade surprised German infantry in the open, and successfully charged and dispersed them, until driven off by armoured cars.
While Polish cavalry still carried the sabre for such opportunities, they were trained to fight as highly mobile, dismounted cavalry dragoons and issued with light anti-tank weapons. Jews in Denmark were never forced to wear the Star of David. The Danish resistance did help most Jews flee the country before the end of the war.
Albert Einstein did not fail mathematics classes never "flunked a math exam" in school. Upon seeing a column making this claim, Einstein said "I never failed in mathematics Before I was fifteen I had mastered differential and integral calculus. This belief came from an early studio press release announcing the film's production that used his name to generate interest in the film.
But by the time it had come out, Warner Bros. Wallis had always wanted Bogart for the part. Senator George Smathers never gave a speech to a rural audience describing his opponent, Claude Pepper , as an " extrovert " whose sister was a " thespian ", in the apparent hope they would confuse them with similar-sounding words like "pervert" and "lesbian". Time , which is sometimes cited as the source, described the story of the purported speech as a "yarn" at the time,  and no Florida newspaper reported such a speech during the campaign.
The leading reporter who covered Smathers said he always gave the same boilerplate speech.