With a census-estimated population of 3,,, it is the second-most populous city in the United States, Los Angeles is also the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The city was founded on September 4,, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve.
It became a part of Mexico in following the Mexican War of Independence, in , at the end of the Mexican—American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States.
Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4,, the discovery of oil in the s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in , delivering water from Eastern California, nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis.
Los Angeles also has an economy in culture, media, fashion, science, sports, technology, education, medicine. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index, the city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States.
The city has hosted the Summer Olympic Games in and and is bidding to host the Summer Olympics and thus become the second city after London to have hosted the Games three times.
The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary, two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African, indigenous and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small town for decades, but by California — California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center.
What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire then claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in following its war for independence. The western portion of Alta California then was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom.
If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services.
Although it accounts for only 1. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10, years, various estimates of the native population range from , to , The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior.
California groups also were diverse in their organization with bands, tribes, villages. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 3. Alternative rock — Alternative rock is a genre of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the s and became widely popular in the s and s. In this instance, the word refers to the genres distinction from mainstream rock music.
The terms original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their debt to either the musical style or simply the independent. Ethos of punk rock, which in the late s laid the groundwork for alternative music, Alternative rock is a broad umbrella term consisting of music that differs greatly in terms of its sound, its social context, and its regional roots.
By the end of the decade, alternative rocks mainstream prominence declined due to a number of events that caused grunge and Britpop to fade, emo attracted attention in the larger alternative rock world, and the term was applied to a variety of artists, including multi-platinum acts. Post-punk revival artists such as Modest Mouse and The Killers had commercial success in the early, before the term alternative rock came into common usage around , the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms.
College rock was used in the United States to describe the music during the s due to its links to the radio circuit. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture, according to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called Alternative Charts. The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January , at the time, the term indie was used literally to describe independently distributed records.
By , indie had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, at first the term referred to intentionally non—mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave and high-energy dance anthems. The use of alternative gained further exposure due to the success of Lollapalooza, for which festival founder, in the late s, the definition again became more specific.
Defining music as alternative is often difficult because of two conflicting applications of the word, the name alternative rock essentially serves as an umbrella term for underground music that has emerged in the wake of punk rock since the mids.
Alternative bands during the s generally played in clubs, recorded for indie labels. This approach to lyrics developed as a reflection of the social and economic strains in the United States and United Kingdom of the s, by , a majority of groups signed to independent record labels mined from a variety of rock and particularly s rock influences.
This represented a break from the futuristic, hyper-rational post-punk years 4. Pop music — Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid s. The terms popular music and pop music are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular. Pop and rock were synonymous terms until the late s, when they were used in opposition from each other. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
Pop music is eclectic, and often borrows elements from other such as urban, dance, rock, Latin. Identifying factors include generally short to medium-length songs written in a format, as well as the common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, jazz, according to Pete Seeger, pop music is professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music.
Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music, the music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz, rock, and novelty songs.
Pop music, as a genre, is seen as existing and developing separately, pop music continuously evolves along with the terms definition. The term pop song was first recorded as being used in , Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country, blues and hillbilly music. The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pops earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience.
Since the late s, however, pop has had the meaning of non-classical mus, usually in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles. Grove Music Online also states that, in the early s pop music competed terminologically with beat music, while in the USA its coverage overlapped with that of rock and roll.
From about , the term was used in opposition to the term rock music. Whereas rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of music, pop was more commercial, ephemeral. It is not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward, and, in musical terms, it is essentially conservative.
It is, provided from on high rather than being made from below, pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged. The beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment, the lyrics of modern pop songs typically focus on simple themes — often love and romantic relationships — although there are notable exceptions 5. Indie rock — Indie rock is a genre of alternative rock that originated in the United States and the United Kingdom in the s.
Originally used to independent record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was initially used interchangeably with alternative rock. In the mids, the term began to be used to describe the music produced on punk and post-punk labels. Some prominent indie rock record labels were founded during the s, during the s, Grunge bands broke into the mainstream, and the term alternative lost its original counter-cultural meaning.
The term indie rock became associated with the bands and genres that remained dedicated to their independent status, by the end of the s indie rock developed subgenres and related styles including lo-fi, noise pop, emo, slowcore, post-rock and math rock. In the s, changes in the industry and in music technology enabled a new wave of indie rock bands to achieve mainstream success.
In the early s, a new group of bands played a stripped-down. The commercial breakthrough from these scenes was led by four bands, The Strokes, The White Stripes, The Hives, emo also broke into mainstream culture in the early s. By the end of the s the proliferation of bands was being referred to as indie landfill. The term indie rock, which comes from independent, describes the small and relatively low-budget labels on which it is released, the influences and styles of the artists have been extremely diverse, including punk, psychedelia, post-punk and country.
Allmusic identifies indie rock as including a number of varying musical approaches compatible with mainstream tastes, in fact, there is an everlasting list of genres and subgenres of indie rock.
Many countries have developed a local indie scene, flourishing with bands with enough popularity to survive inside the respective country. However, there are still indie bands that start off locally, Indie rock has been identified as a reaction against the macho culture that developed in alternative rock in the aftermath of Nirvanas success. However, Cortney Harding pointed out that this sense of equality is not reflected in the number of women running indie labels.
In the mids, indie began to be used to describe the music produced on post-punk labels rather than the labels themselves. The indie rock scene in the US was prefigured by the rock that dominated college radio playlists.
Rock music — It has its roots in s and s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by blues, rhythm and blues and country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of genres such as electric blues and folk. Musically, rock has centered on the guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass guitar. Punk was an influence into the s on the subsequent development of subgenres, including new wave, post-punk.
From the s alternative rock began to rock music and break through into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop. Similarly, s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures and this trio of instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments, particularly keyboards such as the piano, Hammond organ and synthesizers.
The basic rock instrumentation was adapted from the blues band instrumentation. Melodies are often derived from older musical modes, including the Dorian and Mixolydian, harmonies range from the common triad to parallel fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions.
Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock, because of its complex history and tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources, including the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music and rhythm, as a result, it has been seen as articulating the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics.
Christgau, writing in , said in spite of some exceptions, rock and roll usually implies an identification of male sexuality, according to Simon Frith rock was something more than pop, something more than rock and roll. Rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the concept of art as artistic expression, original.
The foundations of music are in rock and roll, which originated in the United States during the late s and early s. Its immediate origins lay in a melding of various musical genres of the time, including rhythm and blues and gospel music, with country. In , Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing rhythm and blues music for a multi-racial audience, debate surrounds which record should be considered the first rock and roll record.
Singing — Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
A person who sings is called a singer or vocalist, Singers perform music that can be sung with or without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is often done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists, Singers may perform as soloists, or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band.
Singing can be formal or informal, arranged or improvised and it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort, or ritual, as part of music education, or as a profession.
Excellence in singing requires time, dedication, instruction, and regular practice, if practice is done on a regular basis then the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers usually build their careers around one specific genre, such as classical or rock. They typically take voice training provided by teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another.
Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals, scalenes and sternocleidomastoid muscles, the pitch is altered with the vocal cords.