Carbon dating continental drift. Elephant bird.



Carbon dating continental drift

Carbon dating continental drift

Crustal Tectonic Plates and their movement How the Earth's crust is split into large sections called tectonic plates is described. Their movement and effects at plate boundaries are explained e. Evidence to support the theory plate tectonic movement Wegener's theory of continental drift is also described e. Tectonic Plates of the crust and their movement - unstoppable powerful plate tectonics!

Introducing the basic ideas and evidence - see also section 9. What can happen when tectonic plates meet or part The 'compact' diagram Fig 2. Plate Tectonics above gives the "2nd Big Picture View" view of plate tectonics and the situations at 1 to 4 will be referred to throughout the answer notes of sections 8.

The Earth's surface is very uneven with all its mountains and valleys and at one time scientists thought this was due to shrinkage of the Earth's surface crust as it has become cooler over millions of years.

We know this is not true, apart from erosion and the effects of rivers, all the major geological features of the Earth can be explained by the science of plate tectonics. This theory is much better at explaining certain geological events and patterns observed in terms of eg mountain ranges and deep ocean trenches.

There were features of the Earth's geology and fossil record which could not be explained e. Also, the fact that geographically the continent of Africa seem to fit quite neatly into the shore line of the South America continent. The Earth's lithosphere the crust and the upper part of the mantle is cracked into a number of large pieces called tectonic plates, you can think of them as giant rock rafts floating on the 'plastic' mantle.

These plates like big rock rafts are less dense than the mantle and so float on it and constantly move at relative speeds of a few centimetres per year as a result of convection currents within the Earth's mantle.

The convection currents are driven by heat released by natural radioactive processes in the mantle. This is what is meant by 'Continental Drift'. This geologically violent activity happens when plates collide, move away from each other and when one plates sub-ducts below another.

Where plates meet or move apart you get volcanic activity. Where plates pass each other you tend to get earthquake activity. For more details on this see section More on plate tectonics, subduction zones, effects of plate movement Fig This plate movement means that most parts of the Earth's crust are in very different locations from millions of years ago e. The crust is the lightest rock of the three layers of the Earth.

The crust plate material under continents tends to be thicker and made of lighter 'granites' but oceanic crust is a thinner but more denser 'basalt' type rock. This heat causes huge 'plumes' or currents of hot 'plastic' magma to rise and these convection currents in the mantle 'drive' the tectonic plates of the crust when they reach the crust.

The 'reconstruction' of the super continent PANGAEA It is now recognised that all the great continental plates we now believe exist were once joined in one giant super continent called Pangaea. Its structure has been worked out from geological data eg rock type sequences, fossil sequence, mapping deep ocean trenches etc. Wegener's theory of crustal movement 'continental drift' was not generally accepted until more than 50 years after it was proposed, so why not?

From onwards the German scientist Wegener first proposed the theory of continental drift and a previous super-continent Pangaea which broke apart into 'smaller' continents, still moving today with considerable evidence. BUT it was hotly disputed and rejected by most scientists of his day. Wegener based his theory of 'continental drift' on the following observations and ideas. For example the marsupials in Australia and South America are very similar and look alike, but so did the flatworms that parasitized them!

He also proposed that mountain ranges are formed when continents collide, spot on again Wegener! All of this can now be explained by the science of plate tectonics, but all his theories were initially rejected before, during after the First World War..

Wegener's theory was generally rejected for several reasons e. These inter-continental land bridges had eroded away or sunk beneath the seas and oceans. They also queried 'why can't this continental drift be detected'? It can be know, even at a rate of 1 - 4 cm per year, modern laser surveying instruments can measure these minute changes.

They do so in Iceland where the Mid-Atlantic ridge goes right through the island and monitoring instruments have set up to measure the rate at which the North American plate is moving away from the Eurasian plate.

A modern view of the evidence for 'continental drift' which supports the theory of plate tectonics Despite the faults of Wegener's theory and calculations his basic idea was correct and the continents are drifting apart, and continue to do so today and they all originate from a once super-massive super-continent. It was only the development of sonar echo-sounding, and other sonar technology, during and after the 2nd World War that the oceans were finally 'mapped out' in the 's - 60's and the recognition that deep ocean trenches existed and the mid-Atlantic ridge give evidence of sea floor spreading.

This was linked with data from the crucial development of radioisotope dating and magnetic recording techniques. So by the late s the theory of tectonic plates was well endorsed by most scientists and back up by increasingly diverse and more accurate data.

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, running the whole of the Atlantic Ocean, has been the focus of much scientific research. In the s scientists investigating the Mid-Atlantic Ridge found evidence that molten rock magma rises up through the sea floor. On emerging into the cold water it solidifies and forms undersea ridges and mountains that are roughly symmetrical on either side.

The basic evidence for supporting the theory of continental drift, explained by plate tectonics, is no different than Wegener's observations in the early 20th century. The difference between now and then is that we have more accurate rock dating data from radioisotope analysis and the sonar mapping of ocean beds, particularly deep ocean trenches.

Several continent shapes seem to fit into each other e. South America and Africa. From the map below you can see that Africa seems to fit into the contours of North America and South America. Different continents have similar ancient mountain ranges made of the same rocks formed in the same sequence, and of the same age, but now geographically far apart.

Sometimes a mountain band in the same country is 'broken' into two displaced sections by side-ways plate movement e. The geological rock and fossil evidence of the past link South America and Africa Rock types and fossils, and their sequence and age, are very similar in South America and South Africa up to about million years ago and then the sequences diverge as the continents parted.

After million years the fossil record changes, the continents are now completely separated and the sequences both fossils from different evolutionary paths and sedimentary rocks become different.

Animals on different continents seem to have a common ancestor e. Magnetic Pole Reversal Patterns - Paleomagnetism science Bands of rock on either side of a mid-ocean ridge show the same pattern of The 'flips' happen over about years? BUT what is the origin of this 'magnetic record'? The explanation lies in the iron-rich minerals in the magma that record the direction of the Earth's magnetic field at the time when the rising magma solidified. The iron minerals in the cooling magma are very slightly magnetised by the Earth's magnetic field and so on solidification the rocks preserve an imprint of the direction of the Earth's magnetic field of the time.

When the rock crystals set, the iron atoms in the minerals act as tiny magnets, and they will align themselves in the current direction of the Earth's magnetic field and remain permanently set in that direction when the solid rock forms.

Just like iron filings scattered around a bar magnet line up in particular directions. But the direction of the magnetisation i. Every so often the Earth's magnetic field flips round e. These bands mirror each other and match the periodic reversals of the Earth's magnetic field and so support the concept of sea floor spreading.

The pattern of polarity changes can be used to estimate the different sections of the Earth's crust and track the very slow movement of the tectonic plates. Certain sedimentary rocks seem to be in the wrong place! So, how did they get there?

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Carbon dating continental drift

Crustal Tectonic Plates and their movement How the Earth's crust is split into large sections called tectonic plates is described. Their movement and effects at plate boundaries are explained e. Evidence to support the theory plate tectonic movement Wegener's theory of continental drift is also described e. Tectonic Plates of the crust and their movement - unstoppable powerful plate tectonics! Introducing the basic ideas and evidence - see also section 9.

What can happen when tectonic plates meet or part The 'compact' diagram Fig 2. Plate Tectonics above gives the "2nd Big Picture View" view of plate tectonics and the situations at 1 to 4 will be referred to throughout the answer notes of sections 8.

The Earth's surface is very uneven with all its mountains and valleys and at one time scientists thought this was due to shrinkage of the Earth's surface crust as it has become cooler over millions of years. We know this is not true, apart from erosion and the effects of rivers, all the major geological features of the Earth can be explained by the science of plate tectonics.

This theory is much better at explaining certain geological events and patterns observed in terms of eg mountain ranges and deep ocean trenches.

There were features of the Earth's geology and fossil record which could not be explained e. Also, the fact that geographically the continent of Africa seem to fit quite neatly into the shore line of the South America continent. The Earth's lithosphere the crust and the upper part of the mantle is cracked into a number of large pieces called tectonic plates, you can think of them as giant rock rafts floating on the 'plastic' mantle.

These plates like big rock rafts are less dense than the mantle and so float on it and constantly move at relative speeds of a few centimetres per year as a result of convection currents within the Earth's mantle. The convection currents are driven by heat released by natural radioactive processes in the mantle. This is what is meant by 'Continental Drift'. This geologically violent activity happens when plates collide, move away from each other and when one plates sub-ducts below another.

Where plates meet or move apart you get volcanic activity. Where plates pass each other you tend to get earthquake activity. For more details on this see section More on plate tectonics, subduction zones, effects of plate movement Fig This plate movement means that most parts of the Earth's crust are in very different locations from millions of years ago e. The crust is the lightest rock of the three layers of the Earth. The crust plate material under continents tends to be thicker and made of lighter 'granites' but oceanic crust is a thinner but more denser 'basalt' type rock.

This heat causes huge 'plumes' or currents of hot 'plastic' magma to rise and these convection currents in the mantle 'drive' the tectonic plates of the crust when they reach the crust. The 'reconstruction' of the super continent PANGAEA It is now recognised that all the great continental plates we now believe exist were once joined in one giant super continent called Pangaea. Its structure has been worked out from geological data eg rock type sequences, fossil sequence, mapping deep ocean trenches etc.

Wegener's theory of crustal movement 'continental drift' was not generally accepted until more than 50 years after it was proposed, so why not? From onwards the German scientist Wegener first proposed the theory of continental drift and a previous super-continent Pangaea which broke apart into 'smaller' continents, still moving today with considerable evidence.

BUT it was hotly disputed and rejected by most scientists of his day. Wegener based his theory of 'continental drift' on the following observations and ideas.

For example the marsupials in Australia and South America are very similar and look alike, but so did the flatworms that parasitized them! He also proposed that mountain ranges are formed when continents collide, spot on again Wegener! All of this can now be explained by the science of plate tectonics, but all his theories were initially rejected before, during after the First World War.. Wegener's theory was generally rejected for several reasons e.

These inter-continental land bridges had eroded away or sunk beneath the seas and oceans. They also queried 'why can't this continental drift be detected'? It can be know, even at a rate of 1 - 4 cm per year, modern laser surveying instruments can measure these minute changes. They do so in Iceland where the Mid-Atlantic ridge goes right through the island and monitoring instruments have set up to measure the rate at which the North American plate is moving away from the Eurasian plate.

A modern view of the evidence for 'continental drift' which supports the theory of plate tectonics Despite the faults of Wegener's theory and calculations his basic idea was correct and the continents are drifting apart, and continue to do so today and they all originate from a once super-massive super-continent.

It was only the development of sonar echo-sounding, and other sonar technology, during and after the 2nd World War that the oceans were finally 'mapped out' in the 's - 60's and the recognition that deep ocean trenches existed and the mid-Atlantic ridge give evidence of sea floor spreading.

This was linked with data from the crucial development of radioisotope dating and magnetic recording techniques. So by the late s the theory of tectonic plates was well endorsed by most scientists and back up by increasingly diverse and more accurate data.

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, running the whole of the Atlantic Ocean, has been the focus of much scientific research. In the s scientists investigating the Mid-Atlantic Ridge found evidence that molten rock magma rises up through the sea floor.

On emerging into the cold water it solidifies and forms undersea ridges and mountains that are roughly symmetrical on either side. The basic evidence for supporting the theory of continental drift, explained by plate tectonics, is no different than Wegener's observations in the early 20th century. The difference between now and then is that we have more accurate rock dating data from radioisotope analysis and the sonar mapping of ocean beds, particularly deep ocean trenches.

Several continent shapes seem to fit into each other e. South America and Africa. From the map below you can see that Africa seems to fit into the contours of North America and South America. Different continents have similar ancient mountain ranges made of the same rocks formed in the same sequence, and of the same age, but now geographically far apart. Sometimes a mountain band in the same country is 'broken' into two displaced sections by side-ways plate movement e.

The geological rock and fossil evidence of the past link South America and Africa Rock types and fossils, and their sequence and age, are very similar in South America and South Africa up to about million years ago and then the sequences diverge as the continents parted.

After million years the fossil record changes, the continents are now completely separated and the sequences both fossils from different evolutionary paths and sedimentary rocks become different. Animals on different continents seem to have a common ancestor e.

Magnetic Pole Reversal Patterns - Paleomagnetism science Bands of rock on either side of a mid-ocean ridge show the same pattern of The 'flips' happen over about years? BUT what is the origin of this 'magnetic record'? The explanation lies in the iron-rich minerals in the magma that record the direction of the Earth's magnetic field at the time when the rising magma solidified. The iron minerals in the cooling magma are very slightly magnetised by the Earth's magnetic field and so on solidification the rocks preserve an imprint of the direction of the Earth's magnetic field of the time.

When the rock crystals set, the iron atoms in the minerals act as tiny magnets, and they will align themselves in the current direction of the Earth's magnetic field and remain permanently set in that direction when the solid rock forms. Just like iron filings scattered around a bar magnet line up in particular directions.

But the direction of the magnetisation i. Every so often the Earth's magnetic field flips round e. These bands mirror each other and match the periodic reversals of the Earth's magnetic field and so support the concept of sea floor spreading.

The pattern of polarity changes can be used to estimate the different sections of the Earth's crust and track the very slow movement of the tectonic plates. Certain sedimentary rocks seem to be in the wrong place! So, how did they get there?

Carbon dating continental drift

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  1. Interference Form of competition where an individual directly prevents the physical establishment of another individual in a portion of a habitat. Under these conditions a low-temperature event insufficient to even reset the potassium—argon system see below Potassium—argon methods in biotite can cause lead to be lost in some grains.

  2. In the s scientists investigating the Mid-Atlantic Ridge found evidence that molten rock magma rises up through the sea floor.

  3. In it was subjected to radiological examination, which revealed no traces of embryonic material. Every so often the Earth's magnetic field flips round e. When an organism dies it ceases to replenish carbon in its tissues and the decay of carbon 14 to nitrogen 14 changes the ratio of carbon 12 to carbon

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