This article compares the history of interracial marriages with that of same-sex marriages. This annotation is only going to focus on the miscegenation laws and the view society had of children born out of interracial marriages. The author states that the freedom to marry has long been recognized as one of the vital personal rights essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by freemen. Historically, however the freedom of marriage was not always granted between races. Virginia first enacted a statutory proscription of miscegenations marriage in Three major justifications are explained by the author which are: White supremacy, protection of White womanhood, and the prevention of mixed race offspring.
The third justification was based on popular belief that children of interracial marriages were mentally and physically inferior to pure White race children. The science of Eugenics also supported the belief that children produced from these interracial marriages were inferior. The science is based on the proposition that most human ills are hereditary and that the human race can be perfected by encouraging the mating of healthy productive stock and discouraging the reproduction among the less fit.
This author goes back in history and talks about the past views of interracial marriages and the justifications for its criminal penalties. Even though this article is used as a comparison between interracial and same-sex marriages, it gives a vivid history of interracial marriages and how the children of these marriages were viewed by society.
Alabama and Virginia, 's's, 70 Chi. In this article, Peter Wallenstein goes into great detail of the evolution of interracial marriages in Alabama and Virginia. First, the author talks about the origins of laws against interracial marriages in Alabama. The Alabama Constitution of directed the legislature to make interracial marriages between White and people of African ancestry "null and void and make the parties to any such marriage subject to criminal prosecutions.
Penalties were also set up for any probate judge who knowingly issued a marriage license to an interracial couple, and for any justice of the peace or minister of the gospel who performed a marriage ceremony for such a couple. The time periods which are focused on are as follows: Virginia, and the post script of both States after Loving.
He ends the article by stating with Loving v. This bibliography will focus on the additional time periods from , and the history basically holds true for both Virginia and Alabama. These time periods are where the history of the children born out of interracial marriages all began. In , the question in front of the legislature was whether "children got by any Englishman upon a Negro woman should be free or slave.
As time progressed, the laws changed, and interracial marriages were not banned, but rather, the law mandated banishment forever of the White party to any interracial marriage that occurred, if free, within three months after such marriage. With the new laws, more people were fined, the penalties were higher, and now the bastard child would be bound as a servant until the age of Then in Virginia's legislature relaxed the terms of their laws in only one aspect-children born after this year would only be subject to servantry for 21 years if they were male and 18 years if female.
As time progressed the fines and penalties decreased, but their historical effects on children were severe and long lasting. The article does an excellent job of laying out the history of interracial marriages, the politics, laws, and court systems behind such marriages, and how the law viewed mixed race children.
The author starts out this article by stating there is no better place to examine prohibitions on interracial sex and marriage as Virginia. Many people see Virginia as the "mother of Presidents" four of the first five Presidents were from Virginia , and the "mother of Revolutionaries" such as Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and Patrick Henry. After slavery was abolished the Virginians needed other mechanisms to preserve racial hierarchy and so laws regarding interracial sex and marriage were introduced.
The author states there are two basic concerns which lead to the laws on interracial sex and marriage: With classification, people were given certain rights and privileges.
If a person was White, they received the rights and privileges; if they were Black or of the mixed race they received nothing. The way in which the court system determined what rights and privileges a person received was through a burden of proof. If the person looked White then the burden of proof was on the State to show the person was either Black or of the mixed race. If the person looked Black or mixed, the burden was on the person to prove they were White and entitled to such rights and privileges.
The statutes were mainly concerned with the White woman first because it was her who was directly assaulting White racial purity. She was producing these mixed race children when in fact she was capable of producing pure White children. Black woman who produced mixed race children were not seen as assaulting the White race because they were unable to produce White children, thus did not effect the White race.
In the and 's rape carried the death penalty, but by the death penalty for rape was abolished. Blacks and mixed race people were prosecuted for rape much more than were Whites for two basic reasons: The article goes into much detail on the ideals of classification and what benefits classification had for a society. This article is also a perfect example to show how law is directly affected with the changes in society's views. Natsu Saito Jenga, Unconscious: The author of this article comments on those who are advocates of the "just say no" approach to racism.
This approach basically states that we all will reject conscious racist acts and proceed in a color-blind manner. In addition, those in favor of this approach say that to effectively counter racism we can ignore race and create interracial families. What needs to occur is the recognition of racial consequences, and to teach children about these consequences.
The author gives three reasons for the recognition and teaching to children: The advocates of this theory say that family relationships hold the key to the resolution of racial conflicts and if family ties make it across racial lines we will more quickly consume racism than by any other force. Our society is based on Black and White, and those children in the middle need to understand that dealing with and not ignoring racism pretending it does not exist is the key to create a non-racial society.
The author in this article, I believe, rightly rejects the "just say no" argument. If this is a huge if we could get everyone to ignore race then this approach would work wonderfully. However, as the author points out, "we cannot click our heels three times, just say no, and make racism disappear. Total pages read The author looks at interracial marriage, perceived by White people, as a method that Blacks were using to achieve racial equality.
Whites feared that interracial marriage would undermine the assumed superiority of White and Black and the legal foundation for dependency on White men that extended to woman and children as well as to Blacks. According to this author, the White men were less concerned about the mixed race children born out of these relationships then they were for the implication of social equality that mixed race marriages implied.
She goes on to say that for nearly the whole years of slavery in America, one constant in the regulations of the institution was the prohibition on sexual relations between Whites and Blacks. However, once the emancipation of the slaves occurred, the Whites felt threatened because there was no longer a legal structure of inferiority and servitude defining racial boundaries. Thus, the Whites power could no longer be taken for granted which resulted in the laws against interracial marriages.
The article goes into may more aspects on interracial marriage like "the dependency rights" and "what constitutes manhood," which in history to be a man the person had to be White. The article does a fine job in showing the major concerns White men had during the 19th century regarding interracial marriages, and how they tried to preserve White supremacy. Racial Categories, African Americans and the U. The author analyzes the "one drop rule" and how this rule placed people into racial categories.
Historically, in some regions if a person had one drop of Black blood in them they were automatically a Black person, which basically gave them no rights and privileges.
On the other hand, as history progressed, the White legislatures were cautious on their definition of a Black person. The main concern was that if they pushed the definition of Black to the extreme, many prominent White families would have been embarrassed by the consequences of distant unknown Black ancestors.
She has observed that society does not tie skin color to a White person who makes certain decisions, but let the person be Black and whatever choices that person makes will automatically be related to their skin color. Therefore, she says race is dictated by society and genealogy and a person has no choice of their race. The focus of this article deals with the U. Census and how children of mixed families should register their identity.
The author proposes that three boxes should be placed in the census-White, Black and Multi-race, with a line for description under multi-race.
She proposes that a multiracial box will have an adjoining line, which will allow the person to identify their parents racial groups. Then the multiracial children can identify to which group they belong to whether it is White, Black, or mixed race. With the accompanying inquiry line, they can be counted as multiracial for the census.
Thus, multiracial people will be more accurately counted and society can better evaluate progress to end racism. There are opposing views to the census modification.
One side says there should be no change to the census because only having Black and White categories better assures safeguarding voting rights, job opportunities, and school segregation plans, as well as to effectively enforce anti-discrimination laws in favor of Blacks.
On the other side there are arguments that the absence of a multiracial category deprives millions of citizens the right to freely express their true racial identity. The author points out some interesting and persuasive arguments for the census modification. If society wants to continue to effectively fight racism, we need an accurate accounting of the racial makeup of our country.
A count that is necessary to gauge the racism that still faces both minority and biracial Americans. First, a discussion will address the negative effects biracial children may face.
A child needs to be completely prepared to face racism. Categorization and racism pose a problem to a biracial child. Those who are racist thinkers need to place everyone into a category, but a biracial child does not fit neatly into a category. Racists may become more resentful and more racist towards these children, and these children may draw inordinate amounts of attention in situations in which the usual racial category system has no clear place for somebody who seems not to fit in one category or another.
When the child is old enough to understand their identity, the parents need to step in and educate the child. This is not always easy for the parents who usually come from two completely different backgrounds. However, parents have concurred that it is absolutely essential that a biracial child have a clear and positive sense of identity.
At times grandparents may become very attached to the child and the biracial family will draw closer together. However, even though the grandparents are very attached to the child, at times the White grandparents historic views overcome them, and they will still keep their distance because of the fear they will get labeled for associating with a Black family.
One last negative effect children receive because of their racial identify comes from their siblings. Some biracial children can pass as White while others can not. This can result in the whiter child receiving privileges society will deny to the darker skinned child. This will ultimately lead to resentment in the family and barriers to sibling closeness.
On the other hand, the child who can pass as White may bring with them a lifetime of identity struggles, the unpleasantness of secret keeping, and personal and family pain arising from efforts to hide the existence of relatives of color.