Leave a comment Here are the footnotes and bibliography that should accompany the page Hatshepsut zine I created. Feel free to email me if there are corrections required. Some of the books also have multiple editions, so if you have a different edition, the page numbers may not be correct for you.
Founding Pharaoh Ahmose I had a militarily and politically active mother and grandmother—he honoured both his grandmother Tetisheri on a cenotaph at Abydos, and his mother Ahhotep I on a stela recovered from Karnak. Instead, it was a political and religius office tied directly to the Pharaoh and his Great Wife or mother. His brothers Amenmose and Wadjmose were named as heirs in reliefs commissioned by Thutmose I. It is unknown who their mother was, but it is likely that they died since their names vanished from the inscriptions after a certain time.
It is generally believed that their mother is Mutnofret, also the mother of Thutmose II. There were probably other campaigns in Syria and in Sinai during this time. It was also customary for the Egyptians to abduct the young sons of nobles from their defeated states as hostages, so they can be schooled in the ways of their conquerors and become obedient rulers of their vassal states. However, Ahmes does not — which may mean that Mutnofret had the stronger bloodline.
According to Roehrig, PP. Having highborn and well-connected wives may seem like a good way to drum up support, but in reality, it may also create succession struggles and clan disputes. By the 18th Dynasty, the god Amun had become the principle god in the Egyptian pantheon.
In ancient Egypt, men are considered the progenitor of the life force that creates the universe, while women are considered receptacles, or fertile soil for his seed.
For that reason, women are considered unable to renew themselves in the cycle of life necessary for universal balance to be maintained, which is why the Pharaoh must always be a man in Egyptian theology.
Bes was the wildly popular Egyptian dwarf god of war, but he was also the patron of childbirth and the home. He was associated with sexuality, humour, dancing and music, and his cult was popular with all segments of Egyptian society. He is often associated with Taweret in the New Kingdom, who is a fierce protection goddess of childbirth who is linked with the lion, crocodile but especially the hippo. The Egyptian royals probably had palaces up and down the Nile river. Thebes was the religious capital, and so at times, the Pharaoh will go to the ceremonial palace at the Entrance of Karnak on the east bank and attend to the priests in its audience hall.
The audience hall and throne room would have been the centrepiece of the palace. The exact length of this time period is unknown. This is an example of her influence years before she became Pharaoh.
It is believed that Hatshepsut had other daughters besides Nefrure, but Nefrure may have been the only one to survive to adulthood. Child mortality rates were very high in ancient Egypt, and children often died of any number of illnesses and diseases before they came of age.
Egyptian harems are not quite like that of other countries such as the Turkish Seraglio or the Chinese Rear Palace. It also seems that the lesser harem women were expected to earn their keep by doing chores like cooking, cleaning, nursing and most likely weaving. When a mummy believed to be that of Thutmose II was found in the 19th Century, his skin was covered in lesions and scars. That does not necessarily indicate a disease—several mummies in the same batch also had the same scarring, which meant that it might have been caused by carelessness during mummification.
Examination revealed an enlarged heart, which meant that the man suffered from arrhythmias and shortness of breath, which probably led to a lack of athleticism and a poor constitution. However, it cannot be definitively proven that this is the mummy of Thutmose II. Thutmose I had no direct line to the previous pharaoh Amenhotep I, who ruled for 20 years and never sired a son. It was assumed he came to the throne young, since his mother Ahmes-Nefertari ruled on his behalf for a time. This could indicate that his mother came from a commoner background.
When gods leave their temples, which are considered their homes, they often travel on such a barque that will be carried by the priests of the god. Thutmose III would later record this oracle in his annals, and make the same claims as Hatshepsut did.
In his eyes, he was chosen and divine, and whether he truly believed it or not is irrelevant as this is how Egyptian kings portrayed their kingship. This lack of other titles indicate that she probably had no political connections. These two separate kingdoms were originally united in BC, but each maintained its own regalia: Hapuseneb was possibly a distant relative of Hatshepsut, since he emphasised his childhood connection to the royal court.
As the high priest of Amun, he commanded a high amount of influence, and he was well-rewarded for his loyalty. Ineni was already the royal architect and Overseer of Royal Buildings during the reign of Amenhotep I. It seemed that Ineni was favoured by Hatshepsut, since the steles on the walls of his tomb talked about how she praised him and granted him riches. Ahmose Pennekhbet was from a distinguished Theban aristocratic family, and already served the Thutmosic family in some form when Hatshepsut came to power.
However, there a few inscriptions from Deir El-Bahri that suggests she travelled with her army to the south to suppress a Nubian insurrection.
There is also an unofficial graffito recovered from the Upper Egyptian island of Sehel modern day Aswan , that was written on behalf of a bureaucrat called Ty who also served under Thutmose III. Sehel was like an ancient bulletin board—it was where people had announcements inscribed, and there are hundreds of unofficial announcements there.
As such, many of them were named in reliefs and inscriptions. Hatshepsut herself had a wet nurse called Sitre who she seemed close to, and who was rewarded with a statue. Senenmut is referring to the Westcar Papyrus, a Middle Kingdom collection of fantastic stories about the 4th Dynasty royal court. In it, one story is about the Old Kingdom where a trio of goddesses helps the Lady Reddjedet give birth to three triplet sons of Ra.
Senenmut is holding ostraca, which are pieces of broken pottery that craftsmen use to plan or teach drawing or writing. They were cheap and widely used, and sketches were often made on these pottery for carvings before they were actually carved.
Some of these were on blocks from Karnak temple, which show her and Thutmose II. These were probably made in memory of her husband, but it was also probably done to solidify her claim to the regency by emphasising her connection to Thutmose II.
Interestingly enough, Thutmose III was also in it, depicted as a grown man and not a child, meaning that Hapshetsut was already establishing her connection to his kingship. In it, Hatshepsut offers wine to the god Amun-Re, something only Pharaohs can do. Hatshepsut was not the first to depict herself in this manner. Sobekneferu of the 12th dynasty did too, a daughter of Amenemhat III who was married to her brother and whose reign was very brief.
This was a queen regnant who ruled with no son, so Hatshepsut may have used her as a model. Both items are considered sceptres, and there are other kinds of sceptres that are often depicted with the pharaoh, the gods, priests and important officials. Since they took years to quarry, Hatshepsut took over them for herself for her coronation. Obelisks were religious objects meant to be a stone representation of the first beams of light to illuminate the world, and their tops were covered with gold foil so they shone.
They were even regarded as living things—they had personal names, and offerings were made to them. For example, Hatshepsut has been known to date her reign all the way back to the reign of Thutmose I, since she was trying to stress her connection to him by claiming her as his legitimate heir, a move she buttressed by de-emphasising the reign of Thutmose II.
Punt was not the first trading expedition Hatshepsut undertook. Before Punt, the court had also visited Phoenicia to collect timber for her ships, and the exploitation of the copper and turquoise mines in Sinai, attested to by stela and inscriptions at the Wadi Maghara and Serabit el-Khadim.
They were often from old, distinguished Theban families where the positions were hereditary, and their fathers occupied similar positions before they took them over. On top of that, he also impinged on some of the responsibilities of other high-ranking officials, which meant that he made some enemies amongst the influential families of Thebes. Under the old system, the temples of various cults were staffed by a few main priests and a variety of part-time personnel.
The professionalisation of the priesthood had begun under Thutmose I, but was truly accomplished under Hatshepsut. Hatshepsut was the first of Egyptian Pharaohs to build extensively in sandstone instead of limestone, and the strength of sandstone allowed her to build larger and taller buildings than before. The amount of building also allowed her plenty of space to sing her own praises and propagandise her reign and rule. Hatshepsut built a temple for Pakhet, an obscure lion-headed goddess at Beni Hasan in Middle Egypt, which the Greeks later called Speos Artemidos after their own hunting goddess Artemis.
In her lifetime, Hatshepsut promoted the cult of Hathor, the daughter of Amun, at her mortuary temple, and while her funerary cult was abandoned soon after her death, the cult of Hathor would continue to be celebrated here.
The temple continued to be used for worship right up until the Ptolemaic period and even after, until it was abandoned in the 8th Century B. They had a game, similar to hockey, that was played with a coloured ball and bats with a curved end made of long palm tree branches. Other games involved a hoop and two sticks, where the two competitors tried to pull the hoop in their direction while making the hoop stay upright.
Mirrors did not exist in Ancient Egypt yet. People used discs of polished bronze or other metals to check their reflection. Apart from kohl made from lead, eye paint made from malachite, and red stains for cheeks and lips made from ochre, they also dyed their hair and painted their nails with henna. Many Egyptian men and women also wore wigs made of human hair, which meant that Hatshepsut possibly shaved her head bald.
She may also have fallen out of favour. They were certainly close, and it is suggested that they might have been lovers. Not only did Hatshepsut allow Senenmut to tunnel his tomb close to hers in the Valley of the Kings, something that is quite bold, but he also managed to get dozens of images of himself engraved in her mortuary temple of Djeser-Djeseru.
This sort of thing has no precedence in Pharaonic history, and that, coupled with the fact that Senenmut had no wife or child, makes people think that their relationship is not platonic. He faded in prominence after her 16th year of reign, meaning he might have died since he is probably 20 years her senior. It was a shrewd political move on her part, since everyone loves a spectacle, and she threw one of the greatest parties that an Egyptian could have seen in their lifetime.
Not only does it affirm the power of the Thutmosic family tree, but it also showed off Thutmose III as a confident, young Pharaoh. There is no evidence of foul play either—if Thutmose III had wanted the throne to himself, he could have launched a military coup at any point in time.
Her exact age at death is also unknown, though she could not possibly have been younger than 38 years old. The average life expectancy of an Egyptian was around 30 years old. When Hatshepsut died, there appeared to have been a number of revolts. It is likely that many areas under Egyptian control rebelled, but it is clear that Thutmose III launched his campaign against the Syrians first, which he was quite successful at. It seemed that while she was buried with her father, Thutmose III ended up moving the body of Thutmose I, probably because the grave had been found by graverobbers and ransacked.
He was also a great builder and athlete. In his spare time, he composed literary works, and his interests ranged from botany, reading, history, religion and even interior design. He was succeeded by his son Amenhotep II.