Urdu — another form of Hindustani — acquired linguistic prestige in the later Mughal period s , and underwent significant Persian influence. Modern Hindi and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century. After independence, the government of India instituted the following conventions: Use outside the Hindi Belt In Northeast India a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has developed as a lingua franca for various tribes in Assam that speak other languages natively.
Under Article , the official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi in Devanagari script and English: The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.
Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorize the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union  Article of the Indian constitution states It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.
It was envisioned that Hindi would become the sole working language of the Union Government by per directives in Article 2 and Article ,  with state governments being free to function in the language of their own choice. However, widespread resistance to the imposition of Hindi on non-native speakers, especially in South India such as the those in Tamil Nadu led to the passage of the Official Languages Act of , which provided for the continued use of English indefinitely for all official purposes, although the constitutional directive for the Union Government to encourage the spread of Hindi was retained and has strongly influenced its policies.
In practice, the official language commissions are constantly endeavouring to promote Hindi but not imposing restrictions on English in official use by the union government. At the state level, Hindi is the official language of the following Indian states: Similarly, Hindi is accorded the status of official language in the following Union Territories: National language status for Hindi is a long-debated theme. In , the Gujarat High Court clarified that Hindi is not the national language of India because the constitution does not mention it as such.
Apart from specialized vocabulary , Hindi is mutually intelligible with Standard Urdu , another recognized register of Hindustani. Hindi is quite easy to understand for some Pakistanis , who speak Urdu , which, like Hindi, is part of Hindustani.
Apart from this, Hindi is spoken by the large Indian diaspora which hails from, or has its origin from the " Hindi Belt " of India. Comparison with Modern Standard Urdu Main articles: Hindi—Urdu controversy , Hindustani phonology , and Hindustani grammar Linguistically , Hindi and Urdu are two registers of the same language and are mutually intelligble.
Hindi is the most commonly used official language in India. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan and is one of 22 official languages of India. The splitting of Hindi and Urdu into separate languages is largely motivated by politics, namely the Indo-Pakistani rivalry. Devanagari script Hindi is written in the Devanagari script, an abugida. Devanagari consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and is written from left to right.
Unlike for Sanskrit, Devanagari is not entirely phonetic for Hindi, especially failing to mark schwa dropping in spoken Standard Hindi.
Devanagari transliteration The Government of India uses Hunterian transliteration as its official system of writing Hindi in the Latin script.
Hindustani etymology and List of Sanskrit and Persian roots in Hindi Traditionally, Hindi words are divided into five principal categories according to their etymology: These are words which are spelled the same in Hindi as in Sanskrit except for the absence of final case inflections. Amongst nouns, the tatsam word could be the Sanskrit non-inflected word-stem, or it could be the nominative singular form in the Sanskrit nominal declension.
Such words are typically earlier loanwords from Sanskrit which have undergone sound changes subsequent to being borrowed. These are native Hindi words derived from Sanskrit after undergoing phonological rules e. These are words that were not borrowings but do not derive from attested Indo-Aryan words either.
Belonging to this category are onomatopoetic words or ones borrowed from local non- Indo-Aryan languages. These include all loanwords from non-indigenous languages. The most frequent source languages in this category are Persian , Arabic , English and Portuguese. Hindi also makes extensive use of loan translation calqueing and occasionally phono-semantic matching of English.
This process usually involves compensatory lengthening of vowels preceding consonant clusters in Prakrit, e. Sanskrit Much of Modern Standard Hindi's vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit as tatsam borrowings, especially in technical and academic fields.
Excessive use of tatsam words sometimes creates problems for native speakers. They may have Sanskrit consonant clusters which do not exist in native Hindi, causing difficulties in pronunciation. Usually these neologisms are calques of English words already adopted into spoken Hindi.
Medieval Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and the composition of long, epic poems.
It was primarily written in other varieties of Hindi , particularly Avadhi and Braj Bhasha , but to a degree also in Khariboli , the basis for Modern Standard Hindi. During the British Raj , Hindustani became the prestige dialect. Chandrakanta , written by Devaki Nandan Khatri in , is considered the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi. The rising numbers of newspapers and magazines made Hindustani popular with the educated people. It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi , who played a major role in establishing Modern Standard Hindi in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of Hindi poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love.
In the 20th century, Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. Internet The Hindi Wikipedia was the first Indic-language wiki to reach , articles. Hindi literature, music , and film have all been disseminated via the internet. Them to reason and conscience's endowment acquired is and always them to brotherhood's spirit with behaviour to do should. Translation grammatical Article 1 — All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.