Rubidium—strontium method The radioactive decay of rubidium 87Rb to strontium 87Sr was the first widely used dating system that utilized the isochron method. Because rubidium is concentrated in crustal rocks, the continents have a much higher abundance of the daughter isotope strontium compared with the stable isotopes.
A ratio for average continental crust of about 0. This difference may appear small, but, considering that modern instruments can make the determination to a few parts in 70,, it is quite significant. Dissolved strontium in the oceans today has a value of 0. Thus, if well-dated, unaltered fossil shells containing strontium from ancient seawater are analyzed, changes in this ratio with time can be observed and applied in reverse to estimate the time when fossils of unknown age were deposited.
Dating simple igneous rocks The rubidium—strontium pair is ideally suited for the isochron dating of igneous rocks. As a liquid rock cools, first one mineral and then another achieves saturation and precipitates, each extracting specific elements in the process. Strontium is extracted in many minerals that are formed early, whereas rubidium is gradually concentrated in the final liquid phase.
In practice, rock samples weighing several kilograms each are collected from a suite of rocks that are believed to have been part of a single homogeneous liquid prior to solidification. The samples are crushed and homogenized to produce a fine representative rock powder from which a fraction of a gram is withdrawn and dissolved in the presence of appropriate isotopic traces, or spikes. Strontium and rubidium are extracted and loaded into the mass spectrometer, and the values appropriate to the x and y coordinates are calculated from the isotopic ratios measured.
Once plotted as R1p i. Using estimates of measurement precision, the crucial question of whether or not scatter outside of measurement error exists is addressed. Such scatter would constitute a geologic component, indicating that one or more of the underlying assumptions has been violated and that the age indicated is probably not valid.
For an isochron to be valid, each sample tested must 1 have had the same initial ratio, 2 have been a closed system over geologic time, and 3 have the same age. Well-preserved, unweathered rocks that crystallized rapidly and have not been subjected to major reheating events are most likely to give valid isochrons. Weathering is a disturbing influence, as is leaching or exchange by hot crustal fluids, since many secondary minerals contain rubidium.
Volcanic rocks are most susceptible to such changes because their minerals are fine-grained and unstable glass may be present. On the other hand, meteorites that have spent most of their time in the deep freeze of outer space can provide ideal samples.
Dating minerals Potassium -bearing minerals including several varieties of mica, are ideal for rubidium—strontium dating as they have abundant parent rubidium and a low abundance of initial strontium. When minerals with a low-rubidium or a high-strontium content are analyzed, the isochron-diagram approach can be used to provide an evaluation of the data. As discussed above, rubidium—strontium mineral ages need not be identical in a rock with a complex thermal history , so that results may be meaningful in terms of dating the last heating event but not in terms of the actual age of a rock.
Dating metamorphic rocks Should a simple igneous body be subjected to an episode of heating or of deformation or of a combination of both, a well-documented special data pattern develops. With heat, daughter isotopes diffuse out of their host minerals but are incorporated into other minerals in the rock. When the rock again cools, the minerals close and again accumulate daughter products to record the time since the second event.
Remarkably, the isotopes remain within the rock sample analyzed, and so a suite of whole rocks can still provide a valid primary age. This situation is easily visualized on an isochron diagram, where a series of rocks plots on a steep line showing the primary age, but the minerals in each rock plot on a series of parallel lines that indicate the time since the heating event.
If cooling is very slow, the minerals with the lowest blocking temperature, such as biotite mica, will fall below the upper end of the line. The rock itself gives the integrated , more gradual increase. Approaches to this ideal case are commonly observed, but peculiar results are found in situations where the heating is minimal. Epidote, a low-temperature alteration mineral with a very high concentration of radiogenic strontium, has been found in rocks wherein biotite has lost strontium by diffusion.
The rock itself has a much lower ratio, so that it did not take part in this exchange. Although rubidium—strontium dating is not as precise as the uranium—lead method, it was the first to be exploited and has provided much of the prevailing knowledge of Earth history. The procedures of sample preparation , chemical separation, and mass spectrometry are relatively easy to carry out, and datable minerals occur in most rocks. Precise ages can be obtained on high-level rocks i. The mobility of rubidium in deep-level crustal fluids and melts that can infiltrate other rocks during metamorphism as well as in fluids involved in weathering can complicate the results.
Samarium—neodymium method The radioactive decay of samarium of mass Sm to neodymium of mass Nd has been shown to be capable of providing useful isochron ages for certain geologic materials. Both parent and daughter belong to the rare-earth element group, which is itself the subject of numerous geologic investigations.
All members of this group have similar chemical properties and charge, but differ significantly in size. Because of this, they are selectively removed as different minerals are precipitated from a melt. In the opposite sense, their relative abundance in a melt can indicate the presence of certain residual minerals during partial melting.
Unlike rubidium, which is enriched over strontium in the crust, samarium is relatively enriched with respect to neodymium in the mantle. Consequently, a volcanic rock composed of melted crust would have elevated radiogenic strontium values and depressed radiogenic neodymium values with respect to the mantle. As a parent—daughter pair, samarium and neodymium are unique in that both have very similar chemical properties, and so loss by diffusion may be reduced. Their low concentrations in surface waters indicates that changes during low-temperature alteration and weathering are less likely.
Their presence in certain minerals in water-deposited gold veins, however, does suggest mobility under certain conditions. In addition, their behaviour under high-temperature metamorphic conditions is as yet poorly documented.
The exploitation of the samarium—neodymium pair for dating only became possible when several technical difficulties were overcome. Procedures to separate these very similar elements and methods of measuring neodymium isotope ratios with uncertainties of only a few parts in , had to be developed.
In theory, the samarium—neodymium method is identical to the rubidium—strontium approach. Both use the isochron method to display and evaluate data. In the case of samarium—neodymium dating, however, the chemical similarity of parent and daughter adds another complication because fractionation during crystallization is extremely limited. This makes the isochrons short and adds further to the necessity for high precision.
With modern analytical methods, however, uncertainties in measured ages have been reduced to 20 million years for the oldest rocks and meteorites. Mineral isochrons provide the best results. The equation relating present-day neodymium isotopic abundance as the sum of the initial ratios and radiogenic additions is that of a straight line, as discussed earlier for rubidium—strontium.
Other successful examples have been reported where rocks with open rubidium—strontium systems have been shown to have closed samarium—neodymium systems. In other examples, the ages of rocks with insufficient rubidium for dating have been successfully determined. There is considerable promise for dating garnet , a common metamorphic mineral, because it is known to concentrate the parent isotope. In general, the use of the samarium—neodymium method as a dating tool is limited by the fact that other methods mainly the uranium—lead approach are more precise and require fewer analyses.
In the case of meteorites and lunar rocks where samples are limited and minerals for other dating methods are not available, the samarium—neodymium method can provide the best ages possible.
Rhenium—osmium method The decay scheme in which rhenium is transformed to osmium shows promise as a means of studying mantle—crust evolution and the evolution of ore deposits. Osmium is strongly concentrated in the mantle and extremely depleted in the crust , so that crustal osmium must have exceedingly high radiogenic-to-stable ratios while the mantle values are low.
In fact, crustal levels are so low that they are extremely difficult to measure with current technology. Most work to date has centred around rhenium- or osmium-enriched minerals. Because rhenium and osmium are both siderophilic having an affinity for iron and chalcophilic having an affinity for sulfur , the greatest potential for this method is in studies concerning the origin and age of sulfide ore deposits.
Potassium—argon methods The radioactive decay scheme involving the breakdown of potassium of mass 40 40K to argon gas of mass 40 40Ar formed the basis of the first widely used isotopic dating method. Since radiogenic argon was first detected in by the American geophysicist Lyman T.
Nier , the method has evolved into one of the most versatile and widely employed methods available. In fact, potassium decays to both argon and calcium , but, because argon is absent in most minerals while calcium is present, the argon produced is easier to detect and measure. Argon dating involves a different technology from all the other methods so far described, because argon exists as a gas at room temperature.
Thus, it can be purified as it passes down a vacuum line by freezing out or reacting out certain contaminants. It is then introduced into a mass spectrometer through a series of manual or computer-controlled valves. Technical advances, including the introduction of the argon—argon method and laser heating, that have improved the versatility of the method are described below.
In conventional potassium—argon dating , a potassium-bearing sample is split into two fractions: After purification has been completed, a spike enriched in argon is mixed in and the atomic abundance of the daughter product argon is measured relative to the argon added.
The amount of the argon present is then determined relative to argon to provide an estimate of the background atmospheric correction. In this case, relatively large samples, which may include significant amounts of alteration, are analyzed. Since potassium is usually added by alteration, the daughter—parent ratio and the age might be too low. A method designed to avoid such complexities was introduced by American geochronologist Craig M.
Merrihue and English geochronologist Grenville Turner in In this technique, known as the argon—argon method, both parent and daughter can be determined in the mass spectrometer as some of the potassium atoms in the sample are first converted to argon in a nuclear reactor.
In this way, the problem of measuring the potassium in inhomogeneous samples is eliminated and smaller amounts of material can be analyzed. An additional advantage then becomes possible. The sample can be heated in stages at different temperatures and the age calculated at each step. If alteration is evident, the invalid low-temperature age can be eliminated and a valid high-temperature age determined.
In some cases, partly reset systems also may be detected. As in all dating systems, the ages calculated can be affected by the presence of inherited daughter products. In a few cases, argon ages older than that of Earth which violate local relative age patterns have even been determined for the mineral biotite.
Such situations occur mainly where old rocks have been locally heated, which released argon into pore spaces at the same time that new minerals grew. Under favourable circumstances the isochron method may be helpful, but tests by other techniques may be required.
For example, the rubidium—strontium method would give a valid isotopic age of the biotite sample with inherited argon. As techniques evolved, argon background levels have been reduced and the method has become more and more sensitive.
Capitalizing on this, it is now possible to measure the minute amount of argon released when a single spot on a crystal is heated by an intense laser beam. For geologically old potassium-rich materials, a single spot may produce sufficient gas for analysis, whereas single millimetre-sized grains 1 mm equals 0.
Progressive refinement of the method has made new areas of research possible, and the ability to understand complexities encountered in earlier investigations has increased. This was done by melting single millimetre-sized grains with a laser and measuring individual argon—argon ages with a highly sensitive gas mass spectrometer.
It has been instrumental, for example, in determining the ages of the stripes of alternating normally and reversely magnetized volcanic rocks that parallel the axis of the mid-oceanic ridges.