It was led by Richard de Clare , called Strongbow due to his prowess as an archer. In , Henry arrived in Ireland in order to review the general progress of the expedition. He wanted to re-exert royal authority over the invasion which was expanding beyond his control.
Henry successfully re-imposed his authority over Strongbow and the Cambro-Norman warlords and persuaded many of the Irish kings to accept him as their overlord, an arrangement confirmed in the Treaty of Windsor. The bull encouraged Henry to take control in Ireland in order to oversee the financial and administrative reorganisation of the Irish Church and its integration into the Roman Church system.
Henry was authorised to impose a tithe of one penny per hearth as an annual contribution. This church levy, called Peter's Pence , is extant in Ireland as a voluntary donation.
In turn, Henry accepted the title of Lord of Ireland which Henry conferred on his younger son, John Lackland , in This defined the Irish state as the Lordship of Ireland. Norman settlements were characterised by the establishment of baronies, manors, towns and the seeds of the modern county system. From the midth century, after the Black Death , Norman settlements in Ireland went into a period of decline.
The Norman rulers and the Gaelic Irish elites intermarried and the areas under Norman rule became Gaelicised. In some parts, a hybrid Hiberno-Norman culture emerged. In response, the Irish parliament passed the Statutes of Kilkenny in These were a set of laws designed to prevent the assimilation of the Normans into Irish society by requiring English subjects in Ireland to speak English, follow English customs and abide by English law.
English Crown control remained relatively unshaken in an amorphous foothold around Dublin known as The Pale , and under the provisions of Poynings' Law of , the Irish Parliamentary legislation was subject to the approval of the English Parliament. English rule was reinforced and expanded in Ireland during the latter part of the 16th century, leading to the Tudor conquest of Ireland. A near complete conquest was achieved by the turn of the 17th century, following the Nine Years' War and the Flight of the Earls.
This control was consolidated during the wars and conflicts of the 17th century, including the English and Scottish colonisation in the Plantations of Ireland , the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the Williamite War. Irish losses during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms which, in Ireland, included the Irish Confederacy and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland are estimated to include 20, battlefield casualties. A further 50, [Note 1] were sent into indentured servitude in the West Indies.
Some historians estimate that as much as half of the pre-war population of Ireland may have died as a result of the conflict.
Religious allegiance now determined the perception in law of loyalty to the Irish King and Parliament. After the passing of the Test Act , and the victory of the forces of the dual monarchy of William and Mary over the Jacobites , Roman Catholics and nonconforming Protestant Dissenters were barred from sitting as members in the Irish Parliament.
Under the emerging Penal Laws , Irish Roman Catholics and Dissenters were increasingly deprived of various and sundry civil rights even to the ownership of hereditary property. Additional regressive punitive legislation followed , and This completed a comprehensive systemic effort to materially disadvantage Roman Catholics and Protestant Dissenters, while enriching a new ruling class of Anglican conformists.
Half-hanging of suspected United Irishmen The " Great Frost " struck Ireland and the rest of Europe between December and September , after a decade of relatively mild winters. The winters destroyed stored crops of potatoes and other staples and the poor summers severely damaged harvests. An estimated , people about one in eight of the population died from the ensuing pestilence and disease.
The population soared in the latter part of this century and the architectural legacy of Georgian Ireland was built. In , Poynings' Law was repealed, giving Ireland legislative independence from Great Britain for the first time since The British government, however, still retained the right to nominate the government of Ireland without the consent of the Irish parliament. Union with Great Britain Main article: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland In , members of the Protestant Dissenter tradition mainly Presbyterian made common cause with Roman Catholics in a republican rebellion inspired and led by the Society of United Irishmen , with the aim of creating an independent Ireland.
Despite assistance from France the rebellion was put down by British and Irish government and yeomanry forces. According to contemporary documents and historical analysis, this was achieved through a considerable degree of bribery, with funding provided by the British Secret Service Office, and the awarding of peerages, places and honours to secure votes.
Aside from the development of the linen industry, Ireland was largely passed over by the industrial revolution , partly because it lacked coal and iron resources   and partly because of the impact of the sudden union with the structurally superior economy of England,  which saw Ireland as a source of agricultural produce and capital.
More than one million people died from starvation and disease, while an additional two million people emigrated, mostly to the United States and Canada. The period of civil unrest that followed until the end of the 19th century is referred to as the Land War. Mass emigration became deeply entrenched and the population continued to decline until the midth century.
Immediately prior to the famine the population was recorded as 8. The 19th and early 20th centuries saw the rise of modern Irish nationalism , primarily among the Roman Catholic population.
He was elected as Member of Parliament for Ennis in a surprise result and despite being unable to take his seat as a Roman Catholic. O'Connell spearheaded a vigorous campaign that was taken up by the Prime Minister, the Irish-born soldier and statesman, the Duke of Wellington. George's father had opposed the plan of the earlier Prime Minister, Pitt the Younger , to introduce such a bill following the Union of , fearing Catholic Emancipation to be in conflict with the Act of Settlement Daniel O'Connell led a subsequent campaign, for the repeal of the Act of Union, which failed.
Unionists, especially those located in Ulster, were strongly opposed to Home Rule, which they thought would be dominated by Catholic interests. To prevent this from happening, the Ulster Volunteers were formed in under the leadership of Edward Carson.
The Act was passed but with the "temporary" exclusion of the six counties of Ulster that would become Northern Ireland. Before it could be implemented, however, the Act was suspended for the duration of the First World War.
The Irish Volunteers split into two groups. The majority, approximately , in number, under John Redmond , took the name National Volunteers and supported Irish involvement in the war. A minority, approximately 13,, retained the Irish Volunteers' name, and opposed Ireland's involvement in the war.
The British response, executing fifteen leaders of the Rising over a period of ten days and imprisoning or interning more than a thousand people, turned the mood of the country in favour of the rebels.
Support for Irish republicanism increased further due to the ongoing war in Europe, as well as the Conscription Crisis of Simultaneously the Volunteers, which became known as the Irish Republican Army IRA , launched a three-year guerrilla war , which ended in a truce in July although violence continued until June , mostly in Northern Ireland.
It gave Ireland complete independence in its home affairs and practical independence for foreign policy, but an opt-out clause allowed Northern Ireland to remain within the United Kingdom, which it immediately exercised as expected.
Additionally, Members of the Free State Parliament were required to swear an oath of allegiance to the Constitution of the Irish Free State and make a statement of faithfulness to the King. The civil war officially ended in May when de Valera issued a cease-fire order.
When de Valera achieved power, he took advantage of the Statute of Westminster and political circumstances to build upon inroads to greater sovereignty made by the previous government. The oath was abolished and in a new constitution was adopted. However, it was not until that the state was declared, officially, to be the Republic of Ireland.
The state was neutral during World War II , but offered clandestine assistance to the Allies , particularly in the potential defence of Northern Ireland. Despite their country's neutrality, approximately 50,  volunteers from independent Ireland joined the British forces during the war, four being awarded Victoria Crosses. The Abwehr was also active in Ireland. To the authorities, counterintelligence was a fundamental line of defence.
With a regular army of only slightly over seven thousand men at the start of the war, and with limited supplies of modern weapons, the state would have had great difficulty in defending itself from invasion from either side in the conflict.
This period of growth became known as the Celtic Tiger. In , it was the sixth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP per capita.
The financial crisis that began in dramatically ended this period of boom. History of Northern Ireland and Economy of Northern Ireland Northern Ireland resulted from the division of the United Kingdom by the Government of Ireland Act , and until was a self-governing jurisdiction within the United Kingdom with its own parliament and prime minister. Northern Ireland, as part of the United Kingdom, was not neutral during the Second World War and Belfast suffered four bombing raids in Conscription was not extended to Northern Ireland and roughly an equal number volunteered from Northern Ireland as volunteered from the south.
Edward Carson signing the Solemn League and Covenant in , declaring opposition to Home Rule "using all means which may be found necessary" Although Northern Ireland was largely spared the strife of the civil war, in decades that followed partition there were sporadic episodes of inter-communal violence. Nationalists, mainly Roman Catholic, wanted to unite Ireland as an independent republic, whereas unionists, mainly Protestant, wanted Northern Ireland to remain in the United Kingdom.
The Protestant and Catholic communities in Northern Ireland voted largely along sectarian lines, meaning that the Government of Northern Ireland elected by "first-past-the-post" from was controlled by the Ulster Unionist Party. Over time, the minority Catholic community felt increasingly alienated with further disaffection fuelled by practices such as gerrymandering and discrimination.