Faustina Kowalska Many diaries of notable figures have been published and form an important element of autobiographical literature. Samuel Pepys — is the earliest diarist who is well known today; his diaries, preserved in Magdalene College, Cambridge , were first transcribed and published in Pepys was amongst the first who took the diary beyond mere business transaction notation, into the realm of the personal.
Pepys' contemporary John Evelyn also kept a notable diary, and their works are among the most important primary sources for the English Restoration period, and consist of eyewitness accounts of many great events, such as the Great Plague of London , and the Great Fire of London.
The practice of posthumous publication of diaries of literary and other notables began in the 19th century. As examples, the Grasmere Journal of Dorothy Wordsworth — was published in ; the Journals of Fanny Burney — were published in ; the diaries of Henry Crabb Robinson — were published in Since the 19th century the publication of diaries by their authors has become commonplace — notably amongst politicians seeking justification but also amongst artists and litterateurs of all descriptions.
Amongst late 20th-century British published political diaries, those of Richard Crossman , Tony Benn and Alan Clark are representative, the latter being more indiscreet in the tradition of the diaries of Chips Channon. One of the most famous modern diaries, widely read and translated, is the posthumously published The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank , who wrote it while in hiding during the German occupation of Amsterdam in the s.
Otto Frank edited his daughter's diary and arranged for its publication after the War. Many edits were made before the diary was published in other countries.
This was due to the sexually explicit material, which also led to some libraries banning the book. A strong psychological effect may arise from having an audience for one's self-expression, even if this is the book one writes in, only read by oneself - particularly in adversity. Anne Frank went so far as to address her diary as "Kitty.
In none of these cases however did the authors anticipate early — or indeed any — publication. Online diary and Blog As internet access became commonly available, many people adopted it as another medium in which to chronicle their lives with the added dimension of an audience. While the format first focused on external links and topical commentary, widespread blogging tools were quickly used to create web journals.
Recent advances have also been made to enable the privacy of internet diary entries. For example, some diary software now stores entries in encrypted format, such bit AES Advanced Encryption Standard encryption, and others only permit access to the diary after correct PIN entry on a secure USB device.
Digital diaries[ edit ] With the popularization of mobile apps , diary or journaling apps have become available for iOS and Android. Proponents cite the following as primary reasons for journaling with digital applications: Ease and speed of typing; mobile portability; search capabilities; entry location, date, and other metadata from mobile phones; and, tags and other organizational features.
Personal organizer A bullet journal is a daily journal and planner created by Ryder Carroll. Sleep diary[ edit ] A sleep diary or sleep log is a tool used in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders or to keep track of dreams had in order to gain insight to the subconscious or for other further contemplating. Tagebuch[ edit ] The German Tagebuch "day-book" is normally rendered as "diary" in English, but the term encompasses workbooks or working journals as well as diaries proper.
Travel journal[ edit ] A travel journal , travel diary, or road journal, is the documentation of a journey or series of journeys.
War diary[ edit ] A war diary is a regularly updated official record of a military unit's administration and activities during wartime maintained by an officer in the unit. Fictional diaries There are numerous examples of fictional diaries. One of the earliest printed fictional diaries was the humorous Diary of a Nobody by George Grossmith and his brother Weedon. Dale's Diary and published books e. Both prompted long-running satirical features in the magazine Private Eye: Another famous example of fictional diaries as prose is Bram Stoker's Dracula.
A modern example includes the Diary of a Wimpy Kid series where each book of the series is written in a first-person view of the main character, as if the book was an actual diary. Other examples are the Bert Diaries and the cellphone diaries in the Japanese manga and anime television series Future Diary.