Estimation difficulties[ edit ] Determining the rate of intimate partner violence IPV against males can be difficult, as men may be reluctant to report their abuse or seek help. For some men, this is an admission they are unwilling, or unable, to make.
Simpson often referred to himself as a "battered husband". Male-on-female IPV has been shown to cause significantly more fear and more severe injuries than female-on-male violence. The difference in the two reports was that Study was a questionnaire of a random representative sample of people, while the Crime Survey attained its figures from crime records, i.
Over a lifetime, this figure increased to These reports have consistently recorded significantly higher rates of both male and female victims of IPV than the standard crime surveys. In the case of male victims, the figures range from a high of 4.
Magazine study, has found a 1 in 7 sexual assault rate for men in U. Although the study found that lesbians experienced IPV at higher rates than heterosexual women, it did acknowledge that the majority of IPV perpetrated against both men and women was carried out by men.
CDC Director Tom Frieden stated, "This report suggests that lesbians, gay men and bisexuals in this country suffer a heavy toll of sexual violence and stalking committed by an intimate partner. It reported that The earliest empirical evidence of gender symmetry was presented in the U. Straus and Richard J.
Gelles on a nationally representative sample of 2, "intact families". The survey found Steinmetz to coin the controversial term "battered husband syndrome" in Findings regarding bidirectional violence are particularly controversial because, if accepted, they can serve to undermine one of the most commonly cited reasons for female perpetrated IPV; self-defense against a controlling male partner.
Despite this, many studies have found evidence of high levels of bidirectionality in cases where women have reported IPV.
For example, social activist Erin Pizzey , who established the first women's shelter in the U. In order to counteract claims that the reporting data was skewed, female-only surveys were conducted, asking females to self-report, resulting in almost identical data.
Saltzman, of 11, heterosexual U. Of those relationships, However, men were more likely to inflict injury than women. When data provided by men only was analyzed, When data provided by women only was analyzed, The overall data showed The survey found for "any physical violence", a rate of For severe assault, a rate of Fiebert, began compiling an annotated bibliography of research relating to spousal abuse by women. The aggregate sample size is over , He found that "women were slightly more likely than men to use one or more acts of physical aggression and to use such acts more frequently.
Straus has written "although women may assault their partners at approximately the same rate as men, because of the greater physical, financial, and emotional injury suffered by women, they are the predominant victims. Consequently, the first priority in services for victims and in prevention and control must continue to be directed toward assaults by husbands.
Rates of female-perpetrated violence are higher than male-perpetrated Male and female IPV are perpetrated from similar motives.
He was especially critical of the fact that the majority of the empirical studies reviewed by Fiebert and Archer used the conflict tactics scale CTS as the sole measure of domestic violence, and that many of the studies used samples composed entirely of single people under the age of thirty, as opposed to older married couples.
Even Straus admitted that the data indicates men tend to underestimate their use of violence, and women tend to overestimate their use of violence. Violence by men is expected, so it is not reported; violence by women is not expected, so it is notable and reported.
Morse and Malcolm J. George have presented data suggesting that male underestimation of their partner's violence is more common in CTS based studies than overestimation. Emerson Dobash and Russell P.
They question the methodology behind the CTS, the data which stems from it and the theoretical framework used by investigators who champion it, arguing that male aggression is much more severe than female aggression and the two should not be measured by the same tool on the same scale.
She argues that, as sociologists committed to ending domestic violence, they should have foreseen the controversy such statistics would cause and the damage it could potentially do to battered women. This is because a key step in the effort to achieve an equalitarian society is to bring about recognition of the harm that a patriarchal system causes. The removal of patriarchy as the main cause of IPV weakens a dramatic example of the harmful effects of patriarchy.
In reaction to the findings of the U. Steinmetz wrote an article in in which she coined the term as a correlative to "battered wife syndrome". George, Steinmetz' article "represented a point of departure and antithetical challenge to the otherwise pervasive view of the seemingly universality of female vulnerability in the face of male hegemony exposed by the cases of battered wives".
Gelles , publicly addressed confusion caused by the research and father's rights groups "significant distortion" of the data in his public response Domestic Violence: Not An Even Playing Field, "Indeed, men are hit by their wives, they are injured, and some are killed.
But, are all men hit by women battered? Men who beat their wives, who use emotional abuse and blackmail to control their wives, and are then hit or even harmed, cannot be considered battered men.
A battered man is one who is physically injured by a wife or partner and has not physically struck or psychologically provoked her. In particular, she was criticized for not differentiating between verbal and physical aggression or between intentionality and action wanting to hit was considered the same as actually hitting. For example, David Finkelhor argues that Steinmetz' methodology was unacceptably unscientific. He argues that her work looks at all violence as fundamentally similar; there is no differentiation between male and female violence, or violence against a child and violence against a wife, such as a mother spanking a child and a father breaking a mother's ribs.
Finkelhor sees this as especially important insofar as it does not allow a differentiation between ongoing systemic abuse and once-off violence, or between disciplining a child and beating a partner. Dutton and Tonia L. Nicholls write that traditional feminist theory "views all social relations through the prism of gender relations and holds, in its neo-Marxist view, that men the bourgeoisie hold power advantages over women the proletariat in patriarchal societies and that all domestic violence is either male physical abuse to maintain that power advantage or female defensive violence, used for self-protection".
Linda Kelly writes that "in conceding that women do engage in acts of domestic violence, female use of violence is justified as self-defense—a lifesaving reaction of women who are being physically attacked by their male partners. The development of the battered woman syndrome as a defense for crimes committed against abusive male partners, including homicide, evidences the wide acceptance of a woman's use of violence as self-defense.
Thus, women will be perceived as disproportionately aggressive even if merely defending themselves. Fiebert and Denise M.
Within this group, perpetrators were asked to select reasons as to why they assaulted their partner, with the option to choose multiple reasons. Writing of the feminist theory which regards reinforcement of patriarchy as a primary cause of IPV, Murray A. Straus writes "Patriarchy and male dominance in the family are clearly among the causes [of IPV], but there are many others. However, with rare exceptions, current offender treatment programs are based on the assumption that the primary cause is male dominance.
Thus, they proceed under an erroneous assumption. Illustrative of this fallacious single-cause approach are the state-mandated offender treatment programs that forbid treating other causes, such as inadequate anger management skills.
Medeiros and Murray A. Straus conducted a study using a sample of students men and women from two American universities. They identified fourteen specific risk factors common amongst both males and females who had committed IPV; poor anger management, antisocial personality disorders , borderline personality disorders , pattern of dominating relationships, substance abuse , criminal history, posttraumatic stress disorders , depression , communication problems, jealousy , sexual abuse as a child, stress , and a general attitudinal approval of partner violence.
The main author of the study, Elizabeth Bates, wrote "this suggests that intimate partner violence may not be motivated by patriarchal values and needs to be studied within the context of other forms of aggression, which has potential implications for interventions.
A review published in journal of Violence and Victims found that although less serious situational violence or altercation was equal for both genders, more serious and violent abuse was perpetrated by men. It was also found that women's physical violence was more likely motivated by self-defense or fear while men's was more likely motivated by control. It was also found that men were more likely to beat up, choke or strangle their partners, while women were more likely to throw things at their partner, slap, kick, bite, punch, or hit with an object.
A review from the journal Psychology of Violence found that women suffered disproportionately as a result of IPV especially in terms of injuries, fear, and posttraumatic stress. Mann of the University of Windsor, an expert on sociology and criminology, stated her opposition to the gender symmetry theory of domestic violence on the grounds that women as well as children are the main victims in the "annual pile up" Coyle, of victims being murdered by intimate partners and fathers throughout Canada AuCoin, ; Ogrodnik, Shelters specifically for men have been set up in the UK; as of , there are sixty refuge places available to men throughout England and Wales, compared to 7, places for women.
The country's first shelter for male abuse victims, Men's Aid NI, opened in early Chairman Peter Morris has remarked, "Domestic violence against men can take many forms, including emotional, sexual and physical abuse and threats of abuse.
It can happen in heterosexual and same-sex relationships and, as with domestic abuse against females, can go largely unreported.