This tool was Initially developed and tested among family physicians and family practice offices, and since then has been evaluated in diverse outpatient settings.
Internal reliability and concurrent validity are acceptable. Generally, sensitivity of this measure has found to be lower among men than among women. It was originally developed for family physicians, but subsequently has been tested in the emergency department. It has been found to have good internal reliability and acceptable concurrent validity. It was developed as a brief instrument for the emergency department. It was created to detect abuse perpetrated against pregnant women.
The screening tool has been tested predominantly with young, poor women. It has acceptable test retest reliability. Johnson argues for four major types of intimate partner violence also known as "Johnson's typology" ,  which is supported by subsequent research and evaluation, as well as independent researchers.
Elaine Storkey in her comprehensive analysis, Scars Across Humanity IVP Academic , argues that intimate partner violence is one aspect of a global manifestation of violence against women. Other examples she cites are selective abortion, female genital mutilation, early, enforced marriage, honour killings, rape, trafficking, prostitution and sexual violence in war.
Intimate terrorism[ edit ] Intimate terrorism, or coercive controlling violence CCV , occurs when one partner in a relationship, typically a man, uses coercive control and power over the other partner,    using threats, intimidation , and isolation.
CCV relies on severe psychological abuse for controlling purposes; when physical abuse occurs it too is severe. Intimate terrorism is more likely to escalate over time, not as likely to be mutual, and more likely to involve serious injury. Severity tends to increase with multiple incidents, especially if the abuse comes in many forms.
If the abuse is more severe, it is more likely to have chronic effects on victims because the long-term effects of abuse tend to be cumulative. Abusers are more likely to have witnessed abuse as children than those who engage in situational couple violence. The first type includes people with general psychopathic and violent tendencies.
The second type includes people who are emotionally dependent on the relationship. Teen dating violence Situational couple violence, also called common couple violence, is not connected to general control behavior, but arises in a single argument where one or both partners physically lash out at the other.
Mildly aggressive behavior such as throwing objects, ranging to more aggressive behaviors such as pushing, slapping, biting, hitting, scratching, or hair pulling.
Less frequent than partner terrorism, occurring once in a while during an argument or disagreement. Milder than intimate terrorism, very rarely escalates to more severe abuse, generally does not include injuries that were serious or that caused one partner to be admitted to a hospital. Violence may be equally expressed by either partner in the relationship. Occurs out of anger or frustration rather than as a means of gaining control and power over the other partner.
Mutual violent control[ edit ] Mutual violent control MVC is rare type of intimate partner violence occurring when both partners act in a violent manner, battling for control. Violent resistance on its own is non-reciprocal, but is reciprocal when in response to intimate terrorism.
By gender[ edit ] In the s and s, studies using large, nationally representative samples resulted in findings indicating that women were as violent as men in intimate relationships.
One side of this debate argues that mainly men perpetrate IPV the gender asymmetry perspective ,  whereas the other side maintains that both genders perpetrate IPV at about equal rates gender symmetry perspective. Duluth model While both women and men can be victims and perpetrators of IPV,  the majority of such violence is inflicted upon women,   who are also much more likely to suffer injuries as a result, in both heterosexual and same-sex relationships.
It was also found that women's use of physical violence was more likely motivated by self-defense or fear whereas men's use of violence was motivated by control. Kimmel argued that the CTS excluded two important facets in gender violence: Kimmel also argued that the CTS failed to assess for the severity of the injury, sexual assaults and abuse from ex-partners or spouses.
A review from the journal Psychology of Violence found that women suffered from over-proportionate numbers of injuries, fear, and posttraumatic stress as a result of partner violence. A study of men in Vietnam found that In a study of German women who experienced IPV during pregnancy, Stockl and Gardner found that most women understood that the pregnancy was a negative turning point in the relationship. Straus and Richard J. Gelles on a nationally representative sample of 2, "intact families.
Steinmetz to coin the controversial term "battered husband syndrome" in In some countries forced sex, or marital rape, often occurs with other forms of domestic violence, particularly physical abuse. Individual treatment[ edit ] Due to the high prevalence and devastating consequences of IPV, approaches to decrease and prevent violence from re-occurring is of upmost importance. Initial police response and arrest is not enough to protect victims from recurrence of abuse; thus, many states have mandated participation in batterer intervention programs BIPs for men who have been charged with assault against an intimate partner.
The Duluth model is one of the most common current interventions for IPV. It represents a psycho-educational approach that was developed by paraprofessionals from information gathered from interviewing battered women in shelters and using principles from feminist and sociological frameworks.
Using the 'power and control wheel,' the goal of treatment is to achieve behaviors that fall on the 'equality wheel' by re-educate men and by replacing maladaptive attitudes held by men. Developed by domestic violence researcher Amie Zarling and colleagues at Iowa State University, the aim of ACTV is teach abusers "situational awareness"—to recognize and tolerate uncomfortable feelings — so that they can stop themselves from exploding into rage.
In addition, many couples who have experienced IPV decide to stay together. These couples may present to couples or family therapy. Although the use of conjoint treatment for IPV is controversial as it may present a danger to victims and potentially escalate abuse, it may be useful to others, such as couples experiencing situational couple violence.
Research suggests that BCT can be effective in reducing IPV when used to treat co-occurring addictions, which is important work because IPV and substance abuse and misuse frequently co-occur. Physical aggression couples treatment PACT is a modification of DCCP, which includes additional psychoeducational components designed to improve relationship quality, including such things as communication skills, fair fighting tactics, and dealing with gender differences, sex, and jealousy.
It is designed to be conducted over 18 weeks and can be delivered in either individual or multi-couple group format.